HTML5 Boilerplate includes a basic project-level
.gitignore. This should
primarily be used to avoid certain project-level files and directories from
being kept under source control. Different development-environments will
benefit from different collections of ignores.
OS-specific and editor-specific files should be ignored using a “global ignore” that applies to all repositories on your system.
For example, add the following to your
~/.gitconfig, where the
in your HOME directory contains the files and directories you’d like to
[core] excludesfile = ~/.gitignore
- More on global ignores: https://help.github.com/articles/ignoring-files
- Comprehensive set of ignores on GitHub: https://github.com/github/gitignore
.editorconfig file is provided in order to encourage and help you and
your team define and maintain consistent coding styles between different
editors and IDEs.
.editorconfig includes some basic
properties that reflect the
coding styles from the files provided by default, but you can easily change
them to better suit your needs.
N.B. If you aren’t using the server configurations provided by HTML5
Boilerplate, we highly encourage you to configure your server to block
.editorconfig files, as they can disclose sensitive information!
For more details, please refer to the EditorConfig project.
H5BP includes a
.htaccess file for the Apache HTTP server. If you are not using
Apache as your web server, then you are encouraged to download a
server configuration that corresponds
to your web server and environment.
Servers and Stacks
A comprehensive list of web servers and stacks are beyond the scope of this documentation, but some common ones include:
- Apache HTTP Server
- LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP). Other variants include MAMP, WAMP, or XAMPP.
- LAPP uses PostgreSQL instead of MySQL
- LEMP is similar to the LAMP stack but uses Nginx
- MEAN (MongoDB, Express, AngularJS, Node.js)
.htaccess (hypertext access) file is a
Apache HTTP server configuration file.
.htaccess file is mostly used for:
- Rewriting URLs
- Controlling cache
- Server-side includes
If you have access to the main server configuration file (usually called
httpd.conf), you should add the logic from the
.htaccess file in, for
To enable Apache modules locally, please see: https://github.com/h5bp/server-configs-apache/wiki/How-to-enable-Apache-modules.
In the repo the
.htaccess is used for:
- Allowing cross-origin access to web fonts
- CORS header for images when browsers request it
404.htmlas 404 error document
- Making the website experience better for IE users better
- Media UTF-8 as character encoding for
- Enabling the rewrite URLs engine
- Forcing or removing the
www.at the begin of a URL
- It blocks access to directories without a default document
- It blocks access to files that can expose sensitive information.
- It reduces MIME type security risks
- It forces compressing (gzipping)
- It tells the browser whether they should request a specific file from the server or whether they should grab it from the browser’s cache
.htaccess we recommend reading all inline comments (the rules after
#) in the file once. There is a bunch of optional stuff in it.
If you want to know more about the
.htaccess file check out
Notice that the original repo for the
.htaccess file is this
The cross-domain policy file is an XML document that gives a web client — such as Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Reader, etc. — permission to handle data across multiple domains, by:
- granting read access to data
- permitting the client to include custom headers in cross-domain requests
- granting permissions for socket-based connections
e.g. If a client hosts content from a particular source domain and that content makes requests directed towards a domain other than its own, the remote domain would need to host a cross-domain policy file in order to grant access to the source domain and allow the client to continue with the transaction.
For more in-depth information, please see Adobe’s cross-domain policy file specification.
robots.txt file is used to give instructions to web robots on what can
be crawled from the website.
By default, the file provided by this project includes the next two lines:
User-agent: *- the following rules apply to all web robots
Disallow:- everything on the website is allowed to be crawled
If you want to disallow certain pages you will need to specify the path in a
Disallow directive (e.g.:
Disallow: /path) or, if you want to disallow
crawling of all content, use
/robots.txt file is not intended for access control, so don’t try to
use it as such. Think of it as a “No Entry” sign, rather than a locked door.
URLs disallowed by the
robots.txt file might still be indexed without being
crawled, and the content from within the
robots.txt file can be viewed by
anyone, potentially disclosing the location of your private content! So, if
you want to block access to private content, use proper authentication instead.
For more information about
robots.txt, please see:
browserconfig.xml file is used to customize the tile displayed when users
pin your site to the Windows 8.1 start screen. In there you can define custom
tile colors, custom images or even live tiles.
By default, the file points to 2 placeholder tile images:
tile.png(558x558px): used for
Largetiles. This image resizes automatically when necessary.
tile-wide.png(558x270px): user for
Notice that IE11 uses the same images when adding a site to the
For more in-depth information about the
browserconfig.xml file, please